Saturday, May 21, 2016

Drupadia cinesoides (de Nicéville)

Very rare denizen of the mid elevation forest. Ressembles a small Manto superficially but may be differentiated by its unbroken marginal band and metallic submarginal markings at the tornal area of the hindwing.

Habitat indicator
RSP
WV
PG
VF
FTR
SC
LWDF
LWPF
LMEF
UMN
MN







x
 X



Frequency observation chart: (S marks the usual occurences, H marks an unusually high occurence, F for first record)

2016
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec




 S3(F)
S2S3







2017
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
















 14:45

14:45
Above photos of a female at mid-elevation on 21 May 2016


another specimen from the same locality: 04 June 2016 @ 13:30


*     *     *    *     *

LIFE HISTORY OF Drupadia cinesoides (de Nicéville)

the female ovipositing eggs on young inflorescens of a jungle plant
21 May 2016

 2 tiny white eggs on the inflorescens

After one week (28 May 2016): a new batch of eggs was laid but out of the earlier batch of 5 eggs, only 2 made it.

The eggshell: the semi hemispherical eggs, like chinese buns was laid on the flower bracts of the host plant. It has numerous tiny indentations on its surface like a golf ball,

The tiny 2nd instar caterpillar (probably around 3 - 4 days old) camouflaged among the buds of the inflorescens. It feeds on the flower buds and ants are visibly also visiting the inflorescens though it looks more like the ants are attacking them than tending to them: one was seen pulling on a recently dead caterpillar. A rough calculation in relation to Drupadia ravindra puts it around the end 2nd instar.



Above pictures of the late 3rd instar/early 4th instar caterpillar from the first batch on 31 May 2016. It bears striking ressemblances to that of D. ravindra except for the 6 tubercles on the dorasl area of the anal area. Perhaps these are honeydew glands (see pictures below).



Above pictures of 4th instar caterpillar(01 June 2016): a day later, ants were seen attending to the caterpillar. The caterpillar measures about 16mm long. Notice that the base colour of the caterpillar has changed to a more apple-green tone and the setae are all in contrasting plum colour matching the flower buds.

side view of the first caterpillar


The second caterpillar from the first batch was smaller: about 14 mm long.

It was also attended to by a smaller ant probably a worker ant from the same colony.

the same caterpillar

Each caterpillar occupies one branch of the inflorescens (notice the left caterpillar is visibly larger eventhough they are from the same batch of eggs).

*     *     *     *     *

The second batch of eggs was laid around 28 May 2016: a 2nd instar (01 June 2016) caterpillar resting undeneath a leaf (about 4mm).

It was also attended to by ants

lateral view of the 3rd instar caterpillar @ 6mm (03 June 2016)


the head showing...

a day later it grew to 10mm (04 June 2016)

Another 24 hours (05 June 2016) - it grew another 4 mm to 14mm! This is the 4th instar stage.


06 June 2016 - the caterpillar grew another 2mm to 16mm

on the third day of the 4th instar (07 June 2016), it grew to almost 19mm



 compare its size to the original empty egg shells at the edge of the flower bract...



Above pictures: 07 June 2016 - the caterpillar stops eating and started wandering off the flowering structure only to recommence eating voraciously after more than 12 hours rest.



Above 3 pictures of the pre-pupa stage where the caterpillar shrunk in size and the ground colour of the body "synchronises" with the chosen stick where it pupates. 09 June 2016. This stage takes 2 days ( 8 - 9 June 2016). The caterpillar when reached this stage has a tendency to descend from the feeding branch towards the bottom of the plant, presumably to look for a pupating spot among dead leaves or twigs on the floor of the forest.

On the second day after pupating - the pupa measures 14mm from tip to tip. Noticebly the colours "synchronized" with the chosen place of pupation. 11 June 2016.

The pupa case changes colour the morning before eclosion - the wings darkened considerably and so is the dorsal area. 19 June 2016 @ 7:59

The newly eclosed specimen at noon. 19 June 2016. FW 19mm

*     *     *     *     *


The host plant is a common forest shrub Schefflera at mid elevation.


Above pictures of the opened inflorescens @ 03 Sept 2016

*     *     *     *     *


Reference:
Tan, H. & Khew, S.K. (2012) Caterpillars of Singapore's Butterflies. Singapore. National Park Board. p.p. 160-161

Monday, May 16, 2016

Curetis sperthis sperthis (C. & R. Felder)

Ressembles superficially to C. santana and can be differentiated by its post-discal band which is almost parallel to the FW termen while in C. santana it is much more angled towards the base of the FW (oblique). Undersides powdered with black dots like in C. santana. On the uppersides, the male HW costa is black.

Habitat indicator
RSP
WV
PG
VF
FTR
SC
LWDF
LWPF
LMEF
UMN
MN











Frequency observation chart: (S marks the usual occurences, H marks an unusually high occurence, F for first record)

2016
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec


 S1b










2017
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec













This male was attracted to the dirty lid of a plastic bottle: 19 Mac 2016 @ 12:31

Sunday, May 1, 2016

Arhopala antimuta antimuta (C. & R. Felder)

Habitat indicator
RSP
WV
PG
VF
FTR
SC
LWDF
LWPF
LMEF
UMN
MN






 x
x




Frequency observation chart: (S marks the usual occurence, H marks an unusually high occurence, F for first record)
2013
2014
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct





S1






2014
2015
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
June
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec




S1










2016
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec


 S2










2017
Jan
Feb
Mac
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec














Above photos 30 May 2014 @ 13:48



Above photos 21 Mac 2015 @ 16:06